is the language form of a region, and varies from the standard language in matters of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Some dialects are also related to social class and ethnic origin. The dialects of the United Kingdom are recorded in Joseph Wright's magnificent but now dated English Dialect Dictionary (1896–1905) and in A Survey of English Dialects (1962–8) edited by Harold Orton and others. There is also a Linguistic Atlas of England (1978), edited by Orton and others, and numerous monographs and glossaries published by local dialect societies. Although words and uses that are grammatical within a dialect do not normally enter the standard language, there are some common words and phrases that had their origins in dialect, as is shown in the table below. Care should be taken to avoid confusing a dialect with a variety: Scottish English, for example, is a variety and not a dialect.
Some common words and idioms of dialect or local origin
word / date / original meaning or source
beach / 16c / shingle, pebbles
binge / 19c / (as verb) = to soak
bleak / 16c / pale, colourless
cack-handed / 19c / cack = excrement
clever / 16c / nimble-handed, adroit
cosh / 19c / Romany koshter = stick
elevenses / 18c / elevens = morning meal
feisty / 19c / ficety (US) = aggressive
old-fashioned (as in an old-fashioned look) / 20c / knowing, precocious
pal / 17c / Romany = brother
poke (as in a pig in a poke) / ME / bag, sack
tab / ME / short broad strap etc.
wilt / 17c / become limp, droop
Bleak and clever are recorded at an earlier date in meanings that are historically unconnected to the later ones. ME = Middle English

Modern English usage. 2014.

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